Linux 服务控制与运行级别

Linux 常见 RAID 及软 RAID 创建

如何控制服务的运行状态?如何切换不同的运行级别?


服务控制

ntsysv
  • 仿图形交互界面,集中配置各种服务启动状态

--level 35:同时对指定运行级别中的服务进行管理,不加仅管理当前运行级别中的服务。

[root@localhost ~]# ntsysv --level 35  
systemctl
  • systemctl {选项} name.servive

start:启动
stop:停止

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl start httpd.service  [root@localhost ~]# systemctl stop httpd.service  

restart:重启,先停止,再启动
reload:重新加载配置文件,不会完全停止和启动服务

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl restart httpd.service  [root@localhost ~]# systemctl reload httpd.service  

status:状态
is-active:是否启动成功
is-failed:是否启动失败

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl status httpd.service  ● httpd.service - The Apache HTTP Server     Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)     Active: active (running) since Tue 2019-08-27 17:31:39 CST; 40s ago       Docs: man:httpd(8)             man:apachectl(8)    Process: 8833 ExecReload=/usr/sbin/httpd $OPTIONS -k graceful (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)   Main PID: 8821 (httpd)     Status: "Total requests: 0; Current requests/sec: 0; Current traffic:   0 B/sec"     CGroup: /system.slice/httpd.service             ├─8821 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND             ├─8835 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND             ├─8836 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND             ├─8837 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND             ├─8838 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND             └─8839 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND    Aug 27 17:31:39 localhost.localdomain systemd[1]: Starting The Apache HTTP Server...  Aug 27 17:31:39 localhost.localdomain httpd[8821]: AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using localhost.l...s message  Aug 27 17:31:39 localhost.localdomain systemd[1]: Started The Apache HTTP Server.  Aug 27 17:31:45 localhost.localdomain httpd[8833]: AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using localhost.l...s message  Aug 27 17:31:45 localhost.localdomain systemd[1]: Reloaded The Apache HTTP Server.  Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.  
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl is-active httpd.service  active  [root@localhost ~]# systemctl is-failed httpd.service  active  

enable:开机自启
disable:关闭开机自启
is-enabled:是否开机自启

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl enable httpd.service  Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/httpd.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service.  [root@localhost ~]# systemctl disable httpd.service  Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/httpd.service.  [root@localhost ~]# systemctl is-enabled httpd.service  disabled  

list-dependencies:查看依赖关系

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl list-dependencies httpd.service  httpd.service  ● ├─-.mount  ● ├─system.slice  ● └─basic.target  ●   ├─microcode.service  ●   ├─rhel-autorelabel-mark.service  ●   ├─rhel-autorelabel.service  ●   ├─rhel-configure.service  ●   ├─rhel-dmesg.service  ●   ├─rhel-loadmodules.service  ●   ├─[email protected]  ●   ├─paths.target  ●   ├─slices.target  ●   │ ├─-.slice  ●   │ └─system.slice  ●   ├─sockets.target  ●   │ ├─dbus.socket  ●   │ ├─dm-event.socket  ●   │ ├─systemd-initctl.socket  ●   │ ├─systemd-journald.socket  ●   │ ├─systemd-shutdownd.socket  ●   │ ├─systemd-udevd-control.socket  ●   │ └─systemd-udevd-kernel.socket  ●   ├─sysinit.target  ●   │ ├─dev-hugepages.mount  ●   │ ├─dev-mqueue.mount  ●   │ ├─kmod-static-nodes.service  ●   │ ├─lvm2-lvmetad.socket  ●   │ ├─lvm2-lvmpolld.socket  ●   │ ├─lvm2-monitor.service  ●   │ ├─plymouth-read-write.service  ●   │ ├─plymouth-start.service  ●   │ ├─proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.automount  ●   │ ├─sys-fs-fuse-connections.mount  ●   │ ├─sys-kernel-config.mount  ●   │ ├─sys-kernel-debug.mount  ●   │ ├─systemd-ask-password-console.path  ●   │ ├─systemd-binfmt.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-firstboot.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-hwdb-update.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-journal-catalog-update.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-journal-flush.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-journald.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-machine-id-commit.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-modules-load.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-random-seed.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-sysctl.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-udev-trigger.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-udevd.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-update-done.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-update-utmp.service  ●   │ ├─systemd-vconsole-setup.service  ●   │ ├─cryptsetup.target  ●   │ ├─local-fs.target  ●   │ │ ├─-.mount  ●   │ │ ├─boot.mount  ●   │ │ ├─rhel-import-state.service  ●   │ │ ├─rhel-readonly.service  ●   │ │ └─systemd-remount-fs.service  ●   │ └─swap.target  ●   │   └─dev-mapper-centosx2dswap.swap  ●   └─timers.target  ●     └─systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer  

mask:屏蔽服务
unmak:取消屏蔽

  • 主要使用于相互冲突的服务,屏蔽后,不会被其他的systemd单元启动,也无法被手动启动。例如iptablesfirewalld就是互相冲突的。
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl mask firewalld.service  Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/firewalld.service to /dev/null.  [root@localhost ~]# systemctl unmask firewalld.service  Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/firewalld.service.  

运行级别

runlevel
  • 显示系统的运行级别
[root@localhost ~]# runlevel  N 5  
切换多用户模式

两种方法:

[root@localhost ~]# init 3  
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl isolate multi-user.target  
切换图形化界面

两种方法:

[root@localhost ~]# init 5  
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl isolate graphical.target  
开机默认 target

1.查看默认启动target

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl get-default  graphical.target  

2.切换默认启动target,两种方法:

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl set-default multi-user.target  Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/default.target.  Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/default.target to /usr/lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target.  
[root@localhost ~]# ln -sf /lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target /etc/systemd/system/default.target  

3.查看默认启动target

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl get-default  multi-user.target  

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